Recent debate in the educational sphere highlights the continuing dilemma that is the creation and implementation of a true 21st century classroom in secondary schools across Australia. A difficulty with these ongoing attempts to reform teaching and learning is the behaviourist educational paradigm through which Western schools operate. This traditional perspective influences the ways in which modern researchers, policy-makers, teachers and the wider community all conceptualise education and its purpose. As such, this paper aims to establish that this understanding of education needs to be overthrown, in light of a changing global context and the evolving needs of students. Thus, an alternative paradigm will be discussed, specifically with reference to the explicit and effective incorporation of metacognition and metacognitive strategies, which are conducive to lifelong learning. For such a teaching and learning focus to become a reality, however, the re-training of needs of educators would be extensive, as would be the restructuring of pre-service teachers’ programs. This paper therefore aims to establish the need for future research into education programs, as well as the current ability of teachers to incorporate further skills and instruction into their pedagogical practice. Such evidence would contribute to the ongoing discussion surrounding the creation and application of modern schooling practices.


secondary education, metacognitive strategies, education programs, research, teaching practices, Australia

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