Article Title

Teacher wellbeing and resilience: Towards an integrative model


Background: Teacher wellbeing and teacher resilience are frequently used constructs when discussing and researching teachers’ work and lives. However, these terms are often used interchangeably and without clarification, highlighting a need to strengthen both conceptual clarity and understanding of the relationship between wellbeing and resilience in teacher research.

Purpose: To address this need, our discussion paper examines how teacher wellbeing and teacher resilience have been conceptualised and introduces an integrative model that aims to elucidate the relationship between the two.

Sources of evidence and main argument: First, we reviewed papers that addressed teacher wellbeing as well as teacher resilience during the last 10 years. In terms of their relationship, we identified four different positions. The most prominent position was that teacher resilience supports the maintenance and development of teacher wellbeing. Second, based on these findings, we developed the Aligning Wellbeing and Resilience in Education (AWaRE) model to specify the relationship between the two constructs and the key aspects of a resilience process. We explain the framework, the individual components of the model and outline the crucial role of appraisals and emotions within the resilience process. We also discuss how this model contributes to the field and may be used as a framework for future research.

Conclusion: The AWaRE model describes a resilience process that is embedded in contextual as well as individual challenges and resources. Within the process, the individual teacher aims at maintaining, restoring and developing their wellbeing. Further research is needed, including empirical validation of the model across the teaching profession. However, the AWaRE model is proposed as a useful tool that can help to clarify the constructs of resilience and wellbeing in educational contexts, and can assist educational practitioners to better understand the resilience process.


teacher, wellbeing, resilience, education, AWaRE model, emotions

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