The issue of racism is one that is covered by both international treaties and domestic legislation. Most major sports, however, now have internal regulations, usually reflecting the treaties and legislation. Case studies from Australian, English and European sport, in particular, football, basketball, cricket and rugby league, indicate that the internal regulations have been effective in dealing with racism issues in those sports. The issues have involved players, managers, coaches, owners, officials and spectators, with the latter representing the main problem area for sport. The reasons for this are that it can be harder to identify the culprits and there is a lack of formal contracts between the sporting leagues and the spectators, though obligations can be enforced through ticketing and the law of licence. While banning spectators who have been identified as having made racist comments is important, it is suggested that education of culprits, be it player, manager, spectator or official, is also an essential requirement.

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