O'Connell, N. E., Marston, L., Wand, B. M., Spencer, S., & De Souza, L. H. (2011). Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques for chronic pain. A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. World Physical Therapy 2011.
Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques aim to induce an electrical stimulation of the brain in an attempt to reduce chronic pain by directly altering brain activity. They include repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). These approaches to pain treatment are relatively novel. It is important to assess the existing literature robustly to ascertain the current level of supporting evidence and to inform future research and potential clinical use.