Beneficial effects on pregnancy outcomes of thyroid hormone replacement for subclinical hypothyroidism.
Journal of Thyroid Research, Online.
Hypothyroidismand raised thyroid antibody levels have been associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes. Several studies have investigated causal associations, but results have been inconsistent and fewstudies have reported the effects of thyroxine replacement therapy on pregnancy outcomes in hypothyroid patients. Objective.The primary study objective was to determine the outcome of pregnancies in women diagnosed with overt and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) (serum TSH > 2.5mIU/L) and those with elevated circulating thyroid autoantibody levels in the first trimester of pregnancy and after the institution of appropriate thyroxine replacement therapy to maintain the serum TSH ≤ 2.5mIU/L. Study Design. This prospective observational study was undertaken between 2013 and 2016. Blood samples were taken from 1025 women at presentation for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb).Those with a TSH > 2.5mIU/L were treated with thyroxine andmanaged appropriately to ensure that theTSHwasmaintained ≤2.5mIU/L. Outcomes in these patients were compared to those in euthyroid patients. Maternal antenatal complications and perinatal outcomes were recorded. Results. There were a total of 1025 patients of whom 382 (37.5%) were nulliparous. 10.1% had a TSH level > 2.5mIU/L and 18.2% had at least one raised thyroid antibody level. No differences in adverse outcomes of pregnancy were evident in women treated for SCH or overt hypothyroidism compared to the euthyroid group. There was also no association between raised thyroid antibodies and adverse pregnancy outcomes in either group. Conclusion.There were no adverse outcomes of pregnancy found in pregnant women who had been diagnosed and treated with thyroxine for SCH at the time of presentation when compared to euthyroid patients. There was also no relationship with thyroid antibodies and adverse pregnancy outcomes in the two groups. It is not possible to unequivocally advocate for thyroxine replacement in pregnant women with subclinical and overt hypothyroidism until large scale randomized controlled trials are performed.
pregnancy, thyroid hormone replacement, hypothyroidism