Article Title

The validation of the E-Victimisation Scale (E-VS) and the E-Bullying Scale (E-BS) for adolescents


This study investigates the psychometric properties of the E-Victimisation Scale (E-VS) and E-Bullying Scale (E-BS) designed to assess Cyber Bullying among Chinese adolescents. Participants were 484 adolescents aged between 11–16 years randomly recruited from high schools within a region. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were applied to investigate the factorial structure of these scales. Reliability was examined by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients by sex. The convergent validity was investigated by correlations among these scales and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression for Children as well as the Zung’s Anxiety Scales. A single-factor model for the E-VS and a 2-factor model for the E-BS were resulted from the EFA with large factor loadings and about 47% and 56% of variance explained respectively. Cronhach’s alpha values provided evidence for good internal reliability with values ranging from 0.55 to 0.96. Correlations between the E-VS and Depression as well as Anxiety scales showed positive and significant relationships, however, the E-BS was only related to Depression. Psychometric evidence has shown that both E-VS and E-BS are valid instruments for measuring Cyber bullying behaviour and victimisation. Further studies are required on the test–retest reliability, discriminate validity, responsiveness, as well as normative information for standardisation.



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