Article Title

Non-pharmacological biological therapies in schizophrenia


Non-pharmacological biological therapies of schizophrenia have dramatically developed over the last eight decades. Starting from a historical perspective authors aim to give an overview about the development of convulsive therapy. Recommendations of the most influential guidelines and the controversies in the worldwide clinical practice are discussed and clinical conditions responsive to electroconvulsive therapy are reviewed. Finally, the place of the new neurostimulation techniques, particularly TMS is outlined.




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