The effect of season on cytokine expression in multiple sclerosis and healthy subjects
Stewart, N., Taylor, B., Ponsonby, A-L., Pittas, F., van der Mei, I., Woods, G., et al. (2007). The effect of season on cytokine expression in multiple sclerosis and healthy subjects. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 188(1-2), 181-186. doi:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2007.06.012Short communication
We measured the levels of IFNγ, TNFα, Il-4 and Il-10 produced by mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy people, and those with the relapse/remitting form of multiple sclerosis. Blood was taken in summer and winter. Healthy people had a summer excess of Il-4, Il-10 and TNFα, and a winter excess of IFNγ. Untreated MS cases had a summer excess of Il-10, whereas those treated with Interferon-beta had lower levels of all cytokines, and displayed no seasonal effect.