Preoperative patient factors associated with blood product use in cardiac surgery, a retrospective cohort study
Preoperative patient factors associated with blood product use in cardiac surgery, a retrospective cohort study.
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery, 17, 23.
Cardiac surgery is associated with a high rate of blood use. The aim of this study is to identify preoperative patient factors associated with allogeneic Red Blood Cell (RBC) or non-Red Blood Cell (NRBC) use in cardiac surgery.
All adult cardiac surgical procedures conducted at a single Western Australian institution were retrospectively analysed. Data was collected from the Australia and New Zealand Cardiac Surgery Database from 2015 to 2018. A number of preoperative factors were identified, relating to past medical history or preoperative cardiac status. Outcome 1 was defined as the use of one or more RBC products intra or post-operatively. Outcome 2 was defined as the use of one or more NRBC products intra or post-operatively. Multivariate logistical regression analysis was done to assess for the association between preoperative factors and allogeneic blood product use.
A total of 1595 patients were included in this study, of which 1488 underwent a Coronary Artery Bypass Graft, Valve or a combined procedure. Patients on dialysis preoperatively and those who had preoperative cardiogenic shock demonstrated the greatest risk of requiring RBC transfusion with an odds ratio of 5.643 (95% CI 1.305–24.40) and 3.257 (95% 1.801–5.882) respectively. Patients who had preoperative cardiogenic shock demonstrated the greatest risk of requiring NRBC transfusion with an odds ratio of 3.473 (95% CI 1.970–6.135). Patients who have had a previous cardiothoracic intervention are at increased risk of both RBC and NRBC transfusion, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.774 (95% CI 1.353–2.325) and 2.370 (95% CI 1.748–3.215) respectively.
A number of factors relating to past medical history or preoperative cardiac status are implicated with increased allogeneic blood product use in cardiac surgery. Identifying high-risk patients in a preoperative setting can enable us enrol them in a blood conservation program, therefore minimizing the risk of exposure to blood transfusion.
Cardiac surgery, Blood transfusion, Blood product use, Coronary artery bypass graft, Valvular heart surgery, Risk factors