Article Title

The gut microbiome in Parkinson’s disease: A longitudinal study of the impacts on disease progression and the use of device-assisted therapies

Abstract

Background: Altered gut microbiome (GM) composition has been established in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, few studies have longitudinally investigated the GM in PD, or the impact of device-assisted therapies.

Objectives: To investigate the temporal stability of GM profiles from PD patients on standard therapies and those initiating device-assisted therapies (DAT) and define multivariate models of disease and progression.

Methods: We evaluated validated clinical questionnaires and stool samples from 74 PD patients and 74 household controls (HCs) at 0, 6, and 12 months. Faster or slower disease progression was defined from levodopa equivalence dose and motor severity measures. 19 PD patients initiating Deep Brain Stimulation or Levodopa-Carbidopa Intestinal Gel were separately evaluated at 0, 6, and 12 months post-therapy initiation.

Results: Persistent underrepresentation of short-chain fatty-acid-producing bacteria, Butyricicoccus, Fusicatenibacter, Lachnospiraceae ND3007 group, and Erysipelotrichaceae UCG-003, were apparent in PD patients relative to controls. A sustained effect of DAT initiation on GM associations with PD was not observed. PD progression analysis indicated that the genus Barnesiella was underrepresented in faster progressing PD patients at t = 0 and t = 12 months. Two-stage predictive modeling, integrating microbiota abundances and nutritional profiles, improved predictive capacity (change in Area Under the Curve from 0.58 to 0.64) when assessed at Amplicon Sequence Variant taxonomic resolution.

Conclusion: We present longitudinal GM studies in PD patients, showing persistently altered GM profiles suggestive of a reduced butyrogenic production potential. DATs exerted variable GM influences across the short and longer-term. We found that specific GM profiles combined with dietary factors improved prediction of disease progression in PD patients.

Keywords

gut microbiota, gastrointestinal microbiome, longitudinal, progression, device-assisted therapies, levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel, deep brain stimulation, Parkinson’s disease

Link to Publisher Version (URL)

10.3389/fnagi.2022.875261

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