Article Title

Efficacy and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole, metformin, and paeoniae-glycyrrhiza decoction for antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia: A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials


Aripiprazole, metformin, and paeoniae–glycyrrhiza decoction (PGD) have been widely used as adjunctive treatments to reduce antipsychotic (AP)-induced hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia. However, the comparative efficacy and safety of these medications have not been previously studied. A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety between aripiprazole, metformin, and PGD as adjunctive medications in reducing AP-induced hyperprolactinemia in schizophrenia. Both international (PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases) and Chinese (WanFang, Chinese Biomedical, and Chinese National Knowledge infrastructure) databases were searched from their inception until January 3, 2019. Data were analyzed using the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations with the WinBUGS software. A total of 62 RCTs with 5,550 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Of the nine groups of treatments included, adjunctive aripiprazole (1:1) was associated with the lowest rate of all-cause discontinuation compared to placebo (posterior odds ratio = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.10, 3.13) and adjunctive aripiprazole (>10 mg/day) was associated with fewer total adverse drug events than placebo (posterior OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.65, 1.77) and other eight treatment groups. In addition, when risperidone, amisulpride, and olanzapine were the primary AP medications, adjunctive paeoniae/glycyrrhiza = 1:1, aripiprazole 10 mg/day were the most effective treatments in reducing the prolactin levels, respectively. Adjunctive aripiprazole, metformin, and PGD showed beneficial effects in reducing AP-induced hyperprolactinemia in schizophrenia, with aripiprazole (<5 mg/day) being the most effective one.


aripiprazole, metformin, paeoniae–glycyrrhiza decoction, hyperprolactinemia, network meta-analysis

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