Article Title

Prevalence, incidence and associates of pulmonary hypertension complicating type 2 diabetes: Insights from the Fremantle diabetes study phase 2 and national echocardiographic database of Australia


There is a paucity of epidemiologic data examining the relationship between pulmonary hypertension (PH) and diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence, incidence and associates of PH complicating type 2 diabetes. Data from 1430 participants (mean age 65.5 years, 51.5% males) in the Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase 2 (FDS2) were linked with the National Echocardiographic Database of Australia (NEDA) to ascertain the prevalence and incidence of PH (estimated right ventricular systolic pressure (eRVSP) >30 mmHg as a new suggested threshold or the conventional >40 mmHg) over a 12-year period. PH prevalence in FDS2 was compared with that in NEDA overall and a geographically close sub-population. Multivariable analyses identified associates of prevalent/incident PH in the FDS2 cohort. Of 275 FDS2 patients (19.2%) with pre-entry echocardiography, 90 had eRVSP >30 mmHg and 35 had eRVSP >40 mmHg (prevalences 32.7% (95% CI 27.3–38.7%) and 12.7% (9.1–17.4%), respectively), rates that are 35–50% greater than national/local NEDA general population estimates. Moreover, 70 (5.0%) and 123 (9.2%) FDS2 participants were identified with incident PH at the respective eRVSP thresholds (incidence (95% CI) 7.6 (6.0–9.7) and 14.2 (11.8–17.0)/1000 person-years), paralleling data from recognised high-risk conditions such as systemic sclerosis. The baseline plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide concentration was the strongest independent associate of prevalent/incident PH. Approximately 1 in 8 people with type 2 diabetes have PH using the eRVSP >40 mmHg threshold. Its presence should be considered as part of regular clinical assessment of individuals with type 2 diabetes


Type 2 diabetes, Pulmonary hypertension, Prevalence, Incidence, Risk factors

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