Article Title

The bioactive, antioxidant, antibacterial, and physicochemical properties of a range of commercially available Australian honeys


Honey is a supersaturated sugar solution produced from plant nectar, with its composition influenced by geographic and floral origins, and with several properties contributing to its health-related abilities. This study aimed to determine the bioactive composition, antioxidant characteristics, antibacterial activity, and physicochemical properties of commercial Australian honeys. In total, 42 commercial Australian honeys were selected, and categorised according to front-label descriptions. Honeys were analysed: quality (Hydroxymethylfurfural); colour (colour intensity, L*,a*,b*); bioactive composition (phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid content); antioxidant characteristics (DPPH, CUPRAC, FRAP); antibacterial activity (MIC50); physicochemical properties (pH, TSS, viscosity, aw). Colour intensity correlated with each assessed bioactive compound and antioxidant characteristic (p ≤ 0.001). MIC50 (S. aureus) was associated with FRAP and aw, suggesting mechanisms of action for honey’s antibacterial activity. Manuka-type honeys had higher colour intensity (1440 (98.5) mAU) than other categories (p ≤ 0.05), and consistently higher bioactive and antioxidant properties. This provides the potential to inform antioxidant-related health outcomes.


Australian commercial honey, bioactive, antioxidant, antibacterial, pysicochemical

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