Wavelength weightings in machine learning for ovine joint tissue differentiation using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS)
Ironside, C. N.
Wavelength weightings in machine learning for ovine joint tissue differentiation using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS).
Biomedical Optics Express, 11 (9), 5122-5131.
Objective: To investigate the DRS of ovine joint tissue to determine the optimal optical wavelengths for tissue differentiation and relate these wavelengths to the biomolecular composition of tissues. In this study, we combine machine learning with DRS for tissue classification and then look further at the weighting matrix of the classifier to further understand the key differentiating features.
Methods: Supervised machine learning was used to analyse DRS data. After normalising the data, dimension reduction was achieved through multiclass Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis (Multiclass FLDA) and classified with linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The classifier was first run with all the tissue types and the wavelength range 190 nm – 1081 nm. We analysed the weighting matrix of the classifier and then ran the classifier again, the first time using the ten highest weighted wavelengths and the second using only the single highest. Our method was applied to a dataset containing ovine joint tissue including cartilage, cortical and subchondral bone, fat, ligament, meniscus, and muscle.
Results: It achieved a classification accuracy of 100% using the wavelength 190 nm – 1081 nm (2048 attributes) with an accuracy of 90% being present for 10 attributes with the exception of those with comparable compositions such as ligament and meniscus. An accuracy greater than 70% was achieved using a single wavelength, with the same exceptions.
Conclusion: Multiclass FLDA combined with LDA is a viable technique for tissue identification from DRS data. The majority of differentiating features existed within the wavelength ranges 370-470 and 800-1010 nm. Focusing on key spectral regions means that a spectrometer with a narrower range can potentially be used, with less computational power needed for subsequent analysis.
diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), ovine joint tissue, optimal optical wavelengths, tissue differentiation, biomolecular composition of tissues