Article Title

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: A growing global epidemic


Background: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is an emerging global health problem of which there is limited awareness. HFpEF has a prognosis similar to that of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and accounts for approximately half of all patients with heart failure.

Objective: The aim of this article is to review HFpEF and its consequences and management, including examples of patients with HFpEF.

Discussion: Patients with HFpEF may present with dyspnoea, fluid retention, lethargy and dizziness, making it difficult to differentiate clinically from HFrEF. The risk factors include increasing age, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and obstructive sleep apnoea. The diagnosis requires good clinical acumen combined with echocardiography and elevated plasma B-type natriuretic peptide concentration. Management of HFpEF, especially in later stages, is difficult as there is no evidence-based therapy to date. Prevention is the best strategy. Early recognition and diagnosis are also very important to tackle this global epidemic.


heart failure, preserved ejection fraction, risk factors, diagnosis

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