Article Title

Using exercise and nutrition to alter fat and lean mass in men with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy: A narrative review


Fat mass (FM) gain and lean mass (LM) loss are common side effects for patients with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Excess FM has been associated with an increased risk of developing obesity-related comorbidities, exacerbating prostate cancer progression, and all-cause and cancer-specific mortality. LM is the predominant contributor to resting metabolic rate, with any loss impacting long-term weight management as well as physical function. Therefore, reducing FM and preserving LM may improve patient-reported outcomes, risk of disease progression, and ameliorate comorbidity development. In ADT-treated patients, exercise and nutrition programs can lead to improvements in quality of life and physical function; however, effects on body composition have been variable. The aim of this review was to provide a descriptive overview and critical appraisal of exercise and nutrition-based interventions in prostate cancer patients on ADT and their effect on FM and LM. Our findings are that FM gain and LM loss are side effects of ADT that could be reduced, prevented, or even reversed with the implementation of a combined exercise and nutrition program. However, the most effective combination of specific exercise and nutrition prescriptions are yet to be determined, and thus should be a focus for future studies.


androgen deprivation therapy, prostate cancer, exercise, nutrition, fat mass, lean mass

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