Decreased diastolic hydraulic forces incrementally associate with survival beyond conventional measures of diastolic dysfunction


Decreased hydraulic forces during diastole contribute to reduced left ventricular (LV) filling and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. However, their association with diastolic function and patient outcomes are unknown. The aim of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to determine the mechanistic association between diastolic hydraulic forces, estimated by echocardiography as the atrioventricular area difference (AVAD), and both diastolic function and survival. Patients (n = 5176, median [interquartile range] 5.5 [5.0–6.1] years follow-up, 1213 events) were selected from the National Echo Database Australia (NEDA) based on the presence of relevant transthoracic echocardiographic measures, LV ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥ 50%, heart rate 50–100 beats/minute, the absence of moderate or severe valvular disease, and no prior prosthetic valve surgery. NEDA contains echocardiographic and linked national death index mortality outcome data from 1985 to 2019. AVAD was calculated as the cross-sectional area difference between the LV and left atrium. LV diastolic dysfunction was graded according to 2016 guidelines. AVAD was weakly associated with E/e’, left atrial volume index, and LVEF (multivariable global R2 = 0.15, p < 0.001), and not associated with e’ and peak tricuspid regurgitation velocity. Decreased AVAD was independently associated with poorer survival, and demonstrated improved model discrimination after adjustment for diastolic function grading (C-statistic [95% confidence interval] 0.644 [0.629–0.660] vs 0.606 [0.592–0.621], p < 0.001) and E/e’ (0.649 [0.635–0.664] vs 0.634 [0.618–0.649], p < 0.001), respectively. Therefore, decreased hydraulic forces, estimated by AVAD, are weakly associated with diastolic dysfunction and demonstrate an incremental prognostic association with survival beyond conventional measures used to grade diastolic dysfunction.


atrioventricular area difference, hydraulic forces, diastolic dysfunction

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