The role of the microbiota–gut–brain axis in long-term neurodegenerative processes following traumatic brain injury


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be a devastating and debilitating disease to endure. Due to improvements in clinical practice, declining mortality rates have led to research into the long-term consequences of TBI. For example, the incidence and severity of TBI have been associated with an increased susceptibility of developing neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanisms linking this alarming association are yet to be fully understood. Recently, there has been a groundswell of evidence implicating the microbiota–gut–brain axis in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Interestingly, survivors of TBI often report gastrointestinal complaints and animal studies have demonstrated gastrointestinal dysfunction and dysbiosis following injury. Autonomic dysregulation and chronic inflammation appear to be the main driver of these pathologies. Consequently, this review will explore the potential role of the microbiota–gut–brain axis in the development of neurodegenerative diseases following TBI.


Inflammation, Microbiota–gut–brain axis, Neurodegeneration, Parkinson's disease, Traumatic brain injury

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