Associations between anxious-depressed symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors in a longitudinal childhood study
Objective: To examine the influence of anxious/depressed scores on cardiovascular risk factors throughout childhood.
Methods: Data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a study of 2900 pregnancies recruited between 1989 and 1991, were used. Anxious-depressed scores (derived from the Childhood Behavior Checklist), body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were measured at 5 (n = 1681), 8 (n = 1697), 10 (n = 1575) and 14 (n = 1386) years. At age 14 depressive symptom scores (Beck Depression Inventory for Youth), anxious-depressed scores (Youth Self-Report (YSR) and Teacher Report Form (TRF)) and fasting lipid, glucose and insulin were also available. Cross sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted.
Results: At age 14, girls with higher anxious-depressed scores had higher BMI (p ≤ 0.005) and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (p ≤ 0.0001). This equated to a difference of 0.6 kg/m2 and 0.3 units in predicted BMI and HOMA-IR respectively (top 5% vs. score of zero). Boys with higher anxious-depressed scores had lower systolic blood pressure trajectories (p = 0.024).
Conclusion: Depressive scores appear to have differing influences on BMI, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance and systolic blood pressure in boys and girls. Paradoxically boys with higher anxious-depressed scores had lower blood pressure throughout childhood.