Elevated serum ceruloplasmin levels are associated with higher impulsivity in people with Parkinson's disease


Background: Heightened impulsivity has been reported in a subset of people with Parkinson’s disease (PwP) and is considered a risk factor for the development of impulse control disorders (ICDs). However, at present, there are no recognised biochemical markers of heightened impulsivity.

Objectives: To determine if ceruloplasmin, a serum marker involved in the regulation of iron and copper homeostasis, is associated with trait impulsivity in PwP.

Methods: 'e study measured serum ceruloplasmin and impulsivity using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) in an Australian cohort of 214 PwP. Multivariate general linear models (GLMs) were used to identify whether higher serum ceruloplasmin levels (>75th percentile) were significantly predictive of BIS-11 scores. Results. Serum ceruloplasmin was higher in females with PD (p < 0.001) and associated with MDS-UPDRS III, Hoehn and Yahr, and ACE-R scores (p < 0.05). When correcting for covariates, higher serum ceruloplasmin concentrations were associated with the 2nd order nonplanning impulsivity and with the 1st order self-control and cognitive complexity impulsivity domains.

Conclusions: Higher serum ceruloplasmin levels are independently associated with heightened nonplanning impulsivity in PwP. Thus, serum ceruloplasmin levels may have clinical utility as a marker for heightened impulsivity in PD.


Parkinson’s disease, trait impulsivity, ceruloplasmin, serum marker, heightened impulsivity

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