Humoral or vascular rejection is a B cell-mediated production of immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibody against a transplanted organ that results in immune complex deposition on the vascular endothelium, activation of the complement cascade, production of endothelial dysfunction and regional ischaemic injury.
Hayes, H., Wood, C., Dembo, L., & O’Driscoll, G. (2008). Treatment of later humoral rejection with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab: A single centre experience. Paper presented at the XXII International Congress of the Transplantation Society. Sydney, NSW, 10-14 August, 2008.