Waldron, N., Johnson, C. V., Saul, P., Heidi, W., Chong, J. C., Hill, A., & Hayes, B. (2016). Development of a video-based education and process change intervention to improve advance cardiopulmonary resuscitation decision-making. BMC Health Services Research, 16.
Background: Advance cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) decision-making and escalation of care discussions are variable in routine clinical practice. We aimed to explore physician barriers to advance CPR decision-making in an inpatient hospital setting and develop a pragmatic intervention to support clinicians to undertake and document routine advance care planning discussions.
Methods: Two focus groups, which involved eight consultants and ten junior doctors, were conducted following a review of the current literature. A subsequent iterative consensus process developed two intervention elements: (i) an updated ‘Goals of Patient Care’ (GOPC) form and process; (ii) an education video and resources for teaching advance CPR decision-making and communication. A multidisciplinary group of health professionals and policymakers with experience in systems development, education and research provided critical feedback.
Results: Three key themes emerged from the focus groups and the literature, which identified a structure for the intervention: (i) knowing what to say; (ii) knowing how to say it; (iii) wanting to say it. The themes informed the development of a video to provide education about advance CPR decision-making framework, improving communication and contextualising relevant clinical issues. Critical feedback assisted in refining the video and further guided development and evolution of a medical GOPC approach to discussing and recording medical treatment and advance care plans.
Conclusion: Through an iterative process of consultation and review, video-based education and an expanded GOPC form and approach were developed to address physician and systemic barriers to advance CPR decisionmaking and documentation. Implementation and evaluation across hospital settings is required to examine utility and determine effect on quality of care.
Advance cardiopulmonary resuscitation, CPR decision-making, Goals of care, Advance care planning, Medical education *