Fish-oil supplementation in pregnancy does not reduce the risk of gestational diabetes or preeclampsia
Zhou, S. J., Yelland, L., McPhee, A. J., Quinlivan, J., Gibson, R. A., & Makrides, M. (2012). Fish-oil supplementation in pregnancy does not reduce the risk of gestational diabetes or preeclampsia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 95(6), 1378-1384. doi:10.3945/ajcn.111.033217
Background: There is uncertainty regarding the efficacy of increasing n−3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) intake during pregnancy in reducing the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and preeclampsia.
Objectives: The objective was to determine whether n−3 LCPUFA supplementation in pregnancy reduces the incidence of GDM or preeclampsia. A secondary objective was to assess the effect of n−3 LCPUFA supplementation on perinatal complications.
Design: This was a double-blind, multicenter randomized control trial—the DHA to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome (DOMInO) trial. Pregnant women (n = 2399) of
Results: The overall incidences of GDM and preeclampsia were 8% and 5%, respectively, based on clinical diagnosis. The RR of GDM was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.27) and of preeclampsia was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.25), and they did not differ significantly between the groups. Birth weight, length, and head circumference z scores also did not differ between the groups. There were 12 perinatal deaths and 5 neonatal convulsions in the control group compared with 3 perinatal deaths and no neonatal convulsions in the DHA group (P = 0.03 in both cases).
Conclusion: DHA supplementation of 800 mg/d in the second half of pregnancy does not reduce the risk of GDM or preeclampsia. Whether supplementation reduces the risk of perinatal death and neonatal convulsions requires further investigation.